The sapwood is light-colored to nearly white and the heartwood varies from grayish or light brown, to pale yellow streaked with brown. The wood is generally straight-grained with a coarse uniform texture.
The sapwood of basswood is usually quite large and creamy white in color, merging into the heartwood which is pale to reddish brown, sometimes with darker streaks. The wood has an indistinct grain that is straight and has a fine texture.
The heartwood of cherry varies from rich red to reddish brown and will darken with age and on exposure to light. In contrast, the sapwood is creamy white. The wood has a straight-grain, a fine, uniform, satiny and smooth texture.
The sapwood is a creamy white with a slight reddish brown tinge, and the heartwood varies from light to dark reddish brown. The wood has a close, fine texture and is generally straight-grained.
The sapwood of hickory is white, tinged with brown, while the heartwood is pale to reddish brown.
The sapwood is creamy white and may be streaked, and the heartwood varies from pale yellowish-brown to olive green. The wood has a medium-to-fine texture and is straight-grained.
The sapwood of red oak is white to light brown and the heartwood is a pinkish-reddish brown. The wood is mostly straight-grained, with a coarse texture.
Alder, a relative of birch, is almost white when freshly cut, but quickly changes with exposure to air, becoming light brown with a yellow or reddish tinge. Heartwood is formed only in trees of advanced age and there is no visible boundary between sap and heartwood.
Descriptions for these species were gained from the American Hardwood Information Center.